Microteaching: Its Meaning
Micro Teaching is an analytical approach to teaching. It is a significant effort to make teacher education program scientific, effective and meaningful. It is now considered not only a constructive teacher training techniques, but also a versatile research tool. It was developed by Prof. Dwight and Robert Bush in teacher preparation program between 1960 and 1967. It may be considered as a miniaturized classroom teaching. It may be stated as a scaled down teaching encounter in class size and class time. The complexity in teaching is reduced by having a small number of students and a short duration of time. The content is also reduced to a single. That is why, one component skill is naturally practiced at one time.
A student teacher teaches a short lesson of five to eight minutes to a small group of pupils, usually five to eight. A single concept is taken up and at the end of the lesson, the pupil leaves and the teacher trainee discuss his lesson with the supervisor. Thereafter, the teacher trainee is given time to think about the discussion and modify his lesson plan accordingly. The student’s teacher then reteaches his micro-lesson with a different group of students under the same condition and with the same opportunities for feedback in an attempt to improve his previous lesson. This process of teach-reteach is repeated until the desirable skill is developed and it usually takes about 30-35 minutes.
Time fraction may be considered as below-
To teach- 6 Min
Feedback- 6 Min
Re-plan- 12 Min
Re-teach- 6 Min
Re-feedback- 6 Min
Total- 36 Minutes.
Definitions of Micro-teaching
D, W. Allen: Microteaching is a scaled down teaching encounter in class size and class time.
R.N. Bush: Microteaching is a teacher education technique which allows teacher to apply clearly defined skills to carefully prepared lessons in planned series of 5-10 minutes encounter with a small group of real students, often, with an opportunity to observe the results and videotape.
David B. Young: Microteaching is a device which provides the novice and experienced teacher alike, new opportunities to improve teaching.
J. C. Clift etal: Microteaching is a teacher training procedure which reduces the teaching situation to a simpler and more controlled encounter achieved by limited the practice teaching to a specific skill and reducing teaching time and class size.
Characteristics of Microteaching
1. Objectives are specified in behavioral terms.
2. Class is divided into small groups of 5-10 pupils.
3. Teaching is relatively simple and non-threatening.
4. Immediate feedback is provided by the supervisor.
5. The role of the supervisor is well defined to improve teaching.
6. Patterns of classroom interaction can be objectively studied.
7. The trainee practices only one skill selected for practice.
8. Time duration is 5-10 minutes.
9. It Is a highly individualized training device.
10. There is a high degree of control in practicing a skill.
Objectives of Microteaching
1. To enable the teacher trainee to learn and assimilate new teaching skills under controlled condition.
2. To enable the teacher trainees to gain confidence in training and mastering a number of teaching skills on a small group of pupils.
3. To utilize the academic potential of teacher trainees for providing much needed feedback.
4. To give the teacher trainees training in the component skills of teaching at the pre-service level.
5. To gain maximum advantage with title time, money and material.
Principles of Microteaching
Micro-teaching resolves around certain principles to improve its reach in al round developments of the teacher-
1. One skill at one time: – In skills in micro-teaching are targeted one at a time. Training on particular skills is given until it is mastered. Once mastered another skill is targeted next. Thus, micro-teaching ais for one skill at a time.
2. Small scale content: – Limiting the content gives more freedom and ease to the trainees. Thus, micro-teaching is based upon the principle of limited content. Teachers are to prepare their lessons within the given content; therefore, it becomes easier for them to conduct their lessons.
3. Practice: – Mastering skills require practice. While focusing on one skill at a time, microteaching program also gives an opportunity to practice those skills. Lots of practice can boast the self-confidence and promote in development of teaching skills.
4. Experiments: – Experiments are the key factors in any concept. In micro-teaching, many experiments are conducted in order to test the skills of the teachers.
5. Immediate feedback: – Micro-teaching consists of teacher-pupil and supervisor as students. Once a session ends, teacher-pupil and supervisors come up with their feedback. This feedback is given instantly after the lesson-plan ends. Thus, it helps in rectify the drawbacks.
6. Self-Evaluation Opportunities: – Evaluation plays an important role in any task. In micro-teaching, supervisors conduct various test and thus there are several chances to analyze mistakes.
Evaluation gives an opportunity to understand the mistake and overcome it. This program includes a session where drawbacks are pointed out along with their solution. Thus, overall improvement becomes an easier target.
7. Continuous Efforts: – Acquiring and mastering skill is a slow and ongoing process. Even after mastering a previous skill, one should continually strive for betterment. Continuous efforts make it easier to attain overall development.
Significance of Microteaching
1. It is an excellent way to build up skills and confidence and to experience a wide variety of teaching styles and also learn and practice ways of giving constructive feedback.
2. It trains teaching behaviors and skills in a protective environment and helps in receiving well-intended feedback.
3. It helps in getting an insight into the needs and expectations of students.
4. It provides individualized training with more realistic evidence to students.
5. It provides a democratic type of behavior among faculty members and student teachers.
6. It helps in getting feedback which is not critical but constructive, suggestive and helpful and this helps them in their transmission to school teaching.
Phases of Microteaching
1. Knowledge Acquisition Phase: –
It involves three activities—
a. To provide knowledge and awareness of a particular teaching skill.
b. To observe demonstration of the teaching skill.
c. To analyze and discuss the demonstration of the activities of the skill.
2. Skill Acquisition Phase: –
It also includes three activities—
a. To prepare a micro lesson for the teaching skill.
b. To practice a skill in real classroom situation.
c. To evaluate the preference.
3. Transfer Phase: –
After practicing and acquiring mastery, over a particular skill, the teacher trainees are required to transfer the skill in a normal classroom situation.
Components of Microteaching
Components of Microteaching
Microteaching involves four components, which are given below: –
3. Microteaching Setting
Modelling: Modelling means demonstration of a lesson on the use of a particular skill by the teacher educator or an expert. Modelling includes three types of modelling. These are: –
a. Perceptual Modelling
b. Symbolic Modelling
c. Audio Modelling
Perceptual Modelling: – In perceptual modelling, a film or a videotape or a live model of the derived behaviors of a particular skill is shown. The purpose behind this act is to help acquire the behaviors through imitation.
Symbolic Modelling: – In this format of modelling, written materials in the form of handbooks, guide, materials etc. are presented.
Audio Modelling: – In audio modelling version of the format, the desired behaviors of a skill are presented through audiotape recorder.
Feedback is one of the most important components of microteaching. After
teaching and re-teaching immediate feedback is provided to the student’s
trainee in order to modify the behavior in the desired direction. This helps in
acquisition of teaching skills. Teaching can also be recorded systematically in
an audio or videotape recorder to review the teaching for providing immediate
Microteaching Setting: – Microteaching setting refers to a microteaching class which coincide of 5-10 students and the duration of the micro lesson is 5-10 minutes. In the Indian model, duration of micro lesson plan is six minutes. The purpose of microteaching setting is to gain mastery over teaching skill. Microteaching setting facilitates a student trainee to undergo the different steps of a microteaching cycle. The schematic diagrams of microteaching setting and a micro-teaching cycle are given under the heading “Procedure of Implementation” in this unit.
Integration of teaching: – Integration of teaching skills mean selection and organization of teaching skills in a real classroom situation through a lesson plan. In analytic approach to teaching, the student’s trainee is exposed thoroughly in one teaching skill at a time. After acquisition of that skill, the next skill is taken up for practice. In this way, the student’s trainee is trained to integrate the different skills through different strategies.
Steps in Microteaching
1. Defining the skill (In terms of specific teaching behavior): – The skills of microteaching are defined regarding the teaching behavior in order to procure knowledge of required skills, which they have to focus on.
2. Demonstrating the skill by the teacher educator: – Experts demonstrate the specific skill by themselves or with the help of audio-videotape recordings to the teacher trainee. This gives an idea to the teacher to work accordingly.
3. Planning the lesson by a teacher trainee: – The trainee teacher plans a short lesson through which he/she could practice the skill. This microteaching lesson plan is done with the help of his supervisor.
4. Teaching the Micro lesson: – Once the lesson planning is done, according to the targeted skill, the pupil teacher teaches the planned lesson to the group of students. These lessons are observed by supervisor and pupil teachers.
5. Discussion on the lesson delivered: – Once the teaching session comes to an end, it is followed by a concluding session. Concluding session consists of feedback by the supervisor.
During this session, the audio or video recording may also be displayed in order to give an opportunity to evaluate oneself. Moreover, it also boosts the confidence level of the trainee.
6. Re-planning the lesson: – Mastering a skill is an ongoing process. Thus, once the cycle of micro-teaching revolves, the process is repeated. This repetition involves re-planning of the lesson-plan. The aim of this re-planning is to master the skill mentioned earlier.
7. Re-teaching the lesson: – On completion of the re-planning of the lesson, it is again taught to another group of students from the same class. The time duration is kept as same as the previous class. This method contributes in practicing the skill repeatedly.
8. Re-discussion or Re-feedback: – At the end of re-teaching session, the discussion and conclusion step are repeated. These discussion and suggestions encourage the performance of the trainee. Thus, the process of feedback is procured to enhance the performance further more.
9. Repeating the cycle: – After the end of every session, this cycle is repeated. The repetition is continued until the required skill is mastered. This process is repeated while attaining all the required skills.
Thus, we can conclude that micro-teaching involves the 4R’s viz, Recording, Re-teaching, Re-discussing and Re-doing.
Assumptions of Microteaching
1. It can reduce the complexities of teaching.
2. It develops the teaching skills by integrating theory and practice.
3. It is a successful technique for individualized training.
4. It is useful both at the pre-service as well as in-service education program.
5. Self-evaluation is possible.
6. Provision of immediate and effective feedback.
7. Objectives are specifically and clearly written.
8. Teaching behavior can be objectively studied.
9. The drawbacks in the teaching process can be found out and improved.
Advantages of Microteaching
1. It reduces the complexities of the teaching situations in terms of number of students, time duration and the subject matter.
2. Several reliable and authentic sources are employed for providing necessary feedback.
3. Teaching is performed under simulated conditions with a small group of students and therefore trainee is on a safe practice ground.
4. Since it is an Individualized training technique, each trainee can make progress at his own rate.
5. It focuses attention on teaching behavior with a view to improve and modify.
6. It helps in building confidence and provides continuous reinforcements.
7. The trainee gets many opportunities to study the desire pattern of behavior through demonstration given by the experts and thus he develops his own style of teaching.
Disadvantages of Microteaching
1. It is skill oriented rather than content oriented.
2. It is time consuming.
3. It presents a fragmented view of teaching.
4. It is bot possible for a trainee to receive training in evaluation, diagnostic and remedial skill.
5. It does not allow for the creativity of the teacher.
6. It can be carried on successfully only in a controlled environment, whereas classroom situations are flexible.
7. It may not fit in Indian conditions, and may create administrative and academic problems.
8. It can not work in isolation and should be used along with other techniques.
Comparision Between Microteaching and Traditional Teaching
1. Simple vs Complex Teaching:- Microteaching has been more or less simple and non-threatening. traditional teaching has been relatively complex and threatening.
2. Duration: – In micro-teaching, the duration is usually 5-10 minutes. In traditional teaching, the duration is 40-6- minutes.
3. Pattern of Class-room interaction: – In micro-teaching, it is possible to study patterns of classroom interacion objectively. In traditional teaching, patterns of classroom interaction can not be objectively studied.
4. Specification of Objective: – in microteaching, objectives can be specified in terms of behavioural pattern. In traditional teaching, the objectives can not be specified in behavioural terms.
5. Providing Feedback: – In microteaching, immediate feedback could be provided. But in traditional teaching, feedback could not be provided.
6. Size of the class: – In microteaching, class has been divided into small groups of 5-10 pupil-teachers. in traditional teaching, the class is having 50-100 pupil-teachers.
7. Awareness: – Microteaching is able to build more awareness among student teachers with regard to professional training. In traditional teaching, it is not so.
8. Score: – Microteaching results yield better score in university examination than their counterpart in conventional teaching.
9. Practicing Skills: – In micro-teaching, pupil teacher is able to practice only one selected skill for practice. In traditional teaching, pupil teacher is able to practice whole complex teaching behaviour.
10. Role of Supervisor: – In micro-teaching, the role of supervisor is highly specific and well defined or improving lesson teaching. In conventional teaching, the role of supervisor has been more or less vague and not useful to improve teaching.