Styles of Teaching
Style is essentially a personal way of doing things. Teachers also have or need to have a personal style of teaching which they can carry on from one learning situation to another. Teaching style is effective by teacher’s believe about good teaching, personal preferences, abilities and the content to be transacted. There are two different styles of teaching-
1. Autocratic Style
2. Permissive Style
A. Autocratic Style: – Autocratic style is the traditional style of teaching which is generally teacher centered or content centered. Teacher’s primary role is to pass knowledge to his students and the students are not allowed to express themselves, ask questions and answer or direct their own learning.
There are three autocratic styles of teaching-
1. Lecture Method
2. Team Teaching
B. Permissive Style: – The permissive style involves the participation of both teachers and students, where the main focus is on the child. The content and strategies are decided on the basis of the learners needs, capacities and personalities.
The three permissive styles are-
1. Group or Panel Discussion
3. Project Method
1. Lecture Method
The word lecture comes from the Latin word “Lectus” which means, “to read”. It was only in the 16th Century that lecture was used to mean oral instructions given by the teacher in front of the learner. Lecture method of teaching is the oldest method where the teacher delivers a well-organized lecture and tries to present the entire content to the student in a systematic way. The teacher remains active and students remain silent listener. However, the success of this method depends to a large extent on the personality of the teacher. Today, lectures involve some sorts of visual needs in order to substantiate it but primarily a lecture doesn’t require any aid to qualify as a lecture.
Advantages of Lecture Method
1. It is the most economical method of teaching.
2. It helps to develop the listening skill of the student.
3. It is useful in giving an overall picture of a large unit of study.
4. Helps the teacher to come into immediate contact with the student.
5. It saves the teacher the botheration of preparing aids and thinking about the need of the students.
6. With this method, the teacher can cover a lengthy syllabus within a short time.
Disadvantages of Lecture method
1. It is teacher oriented and therefore students become passive listener.
2. It is not suitable for young children.
3. It requires skilled and trained teacher and there is always a dearth of such teachers.
4. In this method, there is no scope for experimental work and thus the observatory power of the students gets stagnate.
5. This method doesn’t inspire students for independent thinking and self-exploration.
6. Generally, most of the students are found to be inattentive in a class which is undertaken through the lecture method.
7. The information provided by the teacher through lecture are retained by the students very temporarily.
8. This method doesn’t help in any way to inculcate scientific attitudes among the students.
9. Excessive use of this method is harmful for the student in the long-run.
2. Team Teaching
Team teaching involves a group of instructors working purposefully, regularly and cooperatively to help a group of students to learn. In team teaching, teachers together set goals for a course, design syllabus, prepare individual lesson plan, teach students and evaluate the results. The teachers share their insights, arguing with one another and perhaps even challenge students to decide the better approach. This approach allows for more interaction between students and teachers. The emphasis is on student’s full growth. New teachers may be paired with experienced teachers. Innovations are encouraged and modification in class size, location and time are primitive working as a team, teacher’s model respect for differences, inter-dependence and conflict resolution skills.
Advantages of Team Teaching
1. All students do not learn at the same rate. Periods of equivalent length are not appropriate for all forms of learning. Therefore, team teaching with different areas of expertise and modifications in class size and time are highly recommended.
2. Team teaching allows for planning, skill management, willingness to risk, change and even failures, open mindedness, creativity etc.
3. Team work improves the quality of teaching as different experts approach the same topic from different angles and perspectives. Teacher strengths are combined and weakness are remedy.
4. Working in teams spread responsibilities encourages creativity, deepens friendship and builds community among teachers.
5. The team helps to reduce burden and boosts morale. The presence of another teacher reduces student-teacher personality problems.
Disadvantages of Team Teaching
1. Team teaching may not always been successful, because some teachers possess a rigid personality and may refuse to be flexible. They may also be wedded to a single method.
2. It makes more demands on time and energy which may be difficult to meet in a team.
3. Opposition may also come from students, parents and administrators who may resist change of any kind.
4. Salaries may have reflected to be additional responsibilities undertaken by team members.
Meaning– Tutorial teaching method is follow-up study of lectures. It is highly individualized remedial teaching.
Principles– To provide remedial help for the learners and develop their cognitive and affective domains of behaviors, this strategy is based on following principles-
1. Principle of individual differences.
2. Principle of Remedial Teaching.
Steps- Tutorial involves the following steps: –
1. Diagnosis:- After delivering the lecture in the general class, the teacher tries to find out those students who have some problems in understanding the content. These students are divided into particular groups on the basis of similar problems.
2. Prescription:- The teacher tries to generate teaching relating to the needs, abilities and capabilities of each group of students. These classes are known as tutorial classes.
3. Follow-up: – The teacher tried to evaluate his teaching in terms of learning outcomes of the learner.
Types – Tutorial classes are of three types—
1. Supervision Tutorials
2. Group Tutorials
3. Practical Tutorials
Supervision Tutorial: – In this type of tutorial, the teacher selects those students who are above average intelligence. Teacher assigns a problem to the student and he is asked to present a paper on this problem. The students present his paper on this problem. The students present his paper related to the problems before the teacher and his classmates. The teacher observes and supervises his paper presentation. These audience may put questions and he have to answer them. When he is in a difficulty to satisfy the queries of the audience, the teacher helps him by giving appropriate and satisfactory answer to the listeners.
Group Tutorial: – These steps of tutorials are arranged for students of low intelligence. Those students who have difficulties in classroom teaching, are grouped together on the basis of nature of the problem. Teacher provides them remedial teaching and thus, helps to make the lecture class and legible.
Practical Tutorial: – This type of remedial teaching tries to remove difficulties in practical work. These tutorials can be organized after lecture and practical in the objects like science, arts, music etc. These tutorials are basically employed to achieve psychomotor objectives.
Advantage of Tutorial-
1. As individual differences are taken into consideration, it is supposed to be an effected and efficient way of teaching.
2. Teacher is like a doctor to diagnose the weaknesses of the learners and on the basis of these weaknesses, he provides specific treatment of teaching.
3. Teacher is helping and co-operative to the learners, thus, he gains the confidence of the learners in revealing their problems.
Disadvantage of Tutorial–
1. Due to over-crowded classes, it is very difficult for the tutor to solve the problems of each student and in each and every subject.
2. The schedule allotted for teaching is so tight that remedial teaching is not possible at each and every step.
3. Feeling of jealousy inculcates in the tutorial group.
4. Even in tutorial groups, equal opportunities are not provided to all the students. There are some students who dominate the tutorial group.
Permissive Styles of Teaching
The permissive style of teaching is relationship centered. It involves the participation of both the teachers and the students. It is mainly child centered. The content and strategies are decided considerably learner’s abilities, capabilities, needs and personality. The permissive style helps in exploring the learner’s personalities. They are as follows—
1. Group or Panel Discussion-
It is an organized conversation in which members of a group actively participate and exchange their ideas with a purpose. It is a democratic send child centric strategy. In this, the students address the teacher and give their arguments. Ultimately, a shape is given the different thoughts and opinions presented by the students. The group discussion may be defined as a form of systematic and purposeful oral process characterized by a formal and structured exchange of views on a particular topic. Discussions of any sort are supposed to help us by bringing out fresh and better perspectives and their understandings make us better equipped to deal with the problem.
In a group discussion, the group members need to listen to each other and use voice and gestures effectively, use clear language and persuasive style. Every number has to develop a goal-oriented interaction and should be aware of the needs of other numbers as well as the overall objectives.
Features of Group Discussion—
1. It is a group activity carried-out by participating individuals.
2. It is used as reliable and testing device.
3. It is an informal discussion in which participants of the same standard discuss a topic of current interest.
4. It is also known as leaderless discussion. Because its aim is to find out the natural leadership level of the participants.
Characteristics of a successful group discussion-
1. Having a clear objective.
2. Motivated interaction.
3. Logical presentation.
4. Cordial atmosphere.
5. Effective communication skills.
6. Participation by all candidates.
7. Leadership skills.
In context to teaching, brainstorming is a strategy or tool of teaching used by the teacher in which maximum or all the students participate by responding or presenting views on one topic. This technique encourages new ideas among students which would never have happened under normal circumstances.
Brainstorming in Education—
In the field of education, brainstorming is a large or small group of activities that encourages the students to focus on a topic and contribute to the free flow of ideas. In this process—
a. Teacher begins the session by posing a question, problem or by introducing a topic.
b. The student then expresses possible answers, relevant words and ideas.
c. The contribution is accepted without criticism or judgement and is then summarized on a white board by the teacher.
d. These ideas are examined, usually in an open class discussion format.
Purpose of Brainstorming—
1. To focus student’s attention on a particular topic.
2. To generate particular ideas.
3. To teach acceptance and respect for individual differences.
4. To encourage the learners to take a risk in sharing their ideas and opinions.
5. To demonstrate to the student that their knowledge and abilities are valued and accepted.
6. To provide an opportunity for students to share ideas and expand their knowledge building on each other’s.
Characteristics of Brainstorming—
1. It is an intellectual activity.
2. Maximum or all students can participate.
3. Each student gives their personal views.
4. Each view/idea is neither right nor wrong.
5. It involves divergent thinking.
Advantages of Brainstorming—
1. It stimulated and provides varied instructional approach.
2. Highly motivating.
3. Increase task focus.
4. Promotes spontaneity and creativity.
5. Efficient and procedures.
6. Involves participants in ownership of ideas.
7. Encourage creativity.
3. Project Method-
The exponent of project method was Kilpatrick, an American educationist. This method based on pragmatic philosophy of John Dewey. This is a modern method of teaching and is recent development in the field of teaching. This method demands an interesting, purposeful and practical curriculum. In this method, children acquire knowledge and skill incidentally and directly.
Characteristics of Project method—
1. Project require initiation from the student or group of students.
2. Project necessitate a variety of educational activities.
3. Teaching staff act as a guide and not an authoritarian till the project is completed.
4. It may require a considerable length of time from days to years.
5. The projects involve the teacher and the pupils and the pupils are socialized through this method.
Aims of Project Method—
1. Involvement: – The project work must sensitize an individual for full involvement in the project.
2. Skill for independent work: – the project work must lead the students for developing independent thinking, generate material, draw conclusion, problem solving abilities and skills to communicate findings.
3. Skill for group work: – The project work must teach to cultivate the qualities such as cooperation, group learning, leadership quality, patience and discipline.
4. Skill for communication: – Communication skill such as oral skill, written skills etc. are some of the important skills that can be developed through project method.
5. Knowledge: – The project work provides incidental and real knowledge besides acquiring knowledge about topic and subject concerned.
6. Personal Development: – The project work must aim to develop personal qualities such as resourcefulness, self-confidence, clear thinking, ability to do group works and participation to face challenges in professional life.
Principles of the Project Method—
1. The principle of purpose.
2. The principle of activity.
3. The principle of experience.
4. The principle of utility.
5. The principle of reality.
6. The principle of freedom.
7. The principle of socialization.
Planning and Organization of Project: —
There are four phases in a project, they are—
But a project contains the following steps—
1. Creating a situation
2. Proposing and choosing the project
3. Planning the project
4. Execution of the project
5. Evaluation of the project
6. Recording the project.
Advantages of Project Method—
1. This is a psychological method as it is based on cooperative learning and learning by doing.
2. The knowledge gained by this method become solid and durable.
3. Provides opportunities to work in real life situation.
4. It encourages group works.
5. Transfer of learning is possible to other allied areas of learning.
6. It helps to develop integrated knowledge and experience.
7. This method trains the pupils to socialize their minds which is very essential to live in a society.
8. Backward children are most benefited by this method.
Disadvantages of Project Method—
1. It is a lengthy, laborious and time-consuming method.
2. Knowledge gained by this method is not systematic.
3. The teacher has to play a great role in this method.
4. It can not be applied to all the topics of a subject.