Classroom Management: Meaning
Meaning: – Classroom management is a concept which is clearly
related to the mobilization of teaching learning activities, infrastructural
facilities, learning resources, classroom environment and all other facilities
available including the teacher and the students to maximize learning. The teacher
is mainly responsible for the classroom management. A competent teacher can
manage a classroom but an incompetent teacher finds it difficult. So, classroom management is a challenge for
the teacher. So, the teacher needs to practice for the classroom management to
obtain maximum gain in learning
The teacher is the authority of the classroom and his/her leadership is the key to classroom management. The nature of teacher authority should not be autocratic, but should be democratic nature. Research studies have shown that teacher authority is the key factor for successful group management. The advice, guidance and care of the teacher as a leader of the classroom are responsible for the classroom management.
Thus, classroom management is the integration of the principle of management relating to instruction, other activities, facilities available and classroom environment and discipline.
Strategies of Classroom Management
The different strategies to be used by a teacher are discussed below: –
1. Discipline: – Discipline is a most important factor of classroom management. Discipline means self-control or self-government. Discipline can be maintained in a classroom by using the following strategies: –
a. Good governance
b. Proper use of rewards
c. Proper use of punishment
d. Personality of the teacher
e. Keeping children busy in useful activities
f. Good physical classroom surrounding.
2. Rhythm: – It is a most essential component of classroom management. It refers to the sequence of events or activities which are to be carried out in the classroom. So, a rhythm is an arrangement of activities and its performance in an order. It is just like a classroom routine. This does not mean that unplanned activities could not be allowed to develop in a classroom. Depending on the gravity of the activities, some activities may emerge in the classroom but there should be rhythm in presenting all such activities.
3. Classroom Culture: – Classroom culture refer to a classroom situation where students feel secure, relax and satisfaction. In such a classroom, every student collaborates in doing an activity. The teacher must guide and encourage them in doing activities. The teacher must create an environment of joy and freedom in the classroom. So, cooperative learning takes place in a cultured classroom.
4. Teacher Attention: – Teacher’s attention is the most important strategy to influence the behavior of the students. The teachers smile, praise, encouragement, gestures and silence effect the student’s behavior. Teacher’s attention must be systematic and orderly to establish rapport with the students. Effective and systematic use of attention requires skill and awareness on the part of the teacher. It is important to note that the students must be praised immediately after the modification of behavior. The teacher must observe the students and their reactions on receiving praise, encouragement, gestures etc.
5. Teacher’s Verbal Control: – Verbal control is another important strategy of a teacher to control the class. The teacher can easily control the disruptive students through verbalization.
A controlled voice of the teacher works magic with the students. A firm and clear tone makes the class quiet. A teacher can motive the students with controlled and a good speaking voice. The teacher should not form the habit of talking above the noises of the class. In extreme cases, he/she must quietly but firmly stand for law and order.
6. Group Management: – The teacher must use proper strategy to deal with the aggressive or disruptive behavior of the students. Kounin studied the teacher technique for classroom management and discipline. His famous ‘Ripple Effect’ is a good technique for classroom management. Ripple effect means that when disciplinary action is taken against a particular student, it effects the other students of the class.
7. Personality of the teacher: – The personality of the teacher influences greatly in controlling the class. Personality is the sum of all the behavior or habits of an individual. The good character, good habits, grounding over the subject matter, ability to use methods, techniques, skills etc. in a variety of ways collecting help in the classroom management.
8. Self-Management: – Self-management and self-evaluation are fundamental for effective self-management. The teacher should encourage their students to form the habits of self-learning and self-evaluation. This will develop power to control their own behavior.
9. Student’s Involvement: – The teacher must involve their students in co-curricular activities such as annual functions, daily activities, games and sports, literary activities etc. This will remove student discontent and dissatisfaction and develop some democratic ideals and principles., which they will follow during their school life.
10. Managing pupil’s behavioral problems: – Some students behave in an aberrant way such as throwing chalk, bullying, use of bad language, whistling etc. The teacher should try to diagnose the causes of such type of behaviors and apply remedial measures. The teacher must be quiet and composed but he/she should firmly deal with any disciplinary problems.
11.Developing Social and Democratic Qualities: – Classroom should be a place of social arena where students cooperate with each other and respect each other. Such an atmosphere in a classroom certainly helps in developing social and democratic qualities such as friendliness, fellow-feeling, brotherhood, tolerance etc. The teacher must try to create a conducive environment in the classroom and thereby maintain a proper classroom management and control for effective learning.
Characteristics of Teacher Effectiveness
The determinants or characteristics of an effective teacher are: –
1. Loyalty, sincerity and love for one’s job: – Loyalty to the school and authority and sincerity in works and love for his/her own job is one of the main determinants to be an effective teacher.
2. Love and affection for all: – Abundant love and affection to his/her pupils, colleagues and all section of pupil in the community enhances teacher effectiveness.
3. Dignity and pride to job: – Maintenance of dignity of his/her job is a responsible factor for teacher effectiveness.
4. Freedom from prejudices: – Teacher’s involvement in fighting against social injustice, castism, social evils and prevailing prejudices increases teacher effectiveness.
5. Mastery of subject matter: – Possession of sound knowledge over the subject matter and the abilities to use teaching skills, methods, techniques and devices of teaching are the hallmarks of effective teaching.
6. Sound knowledge of child psychology: – A sound knowledge of child psychology helps a teacher to impart knowledge to the pupils according to their interest, ability and cognitive level.
7. Skills of Questioning: – Questioning is a technique to develop investigative enquiry and innovative faculty of the students. So, the art of questioning is a determinant for effective teacher.
8. Personal Example: – the teacher who possesses qualities like honesty, simplicity, encourages students, dedicate himself/herself for the benefit of the students and apply right tactics is an example for others. Such a personal example is a determinant for teacher effectiveness.
9. Possession of sense of humor: – The ability to create a sense of humor is an essential characteristic of an effective teacher. A good sense of humor makes teaching alive, enjoyable and permanent.
10. Ability to exercise restraint and firmness: – One of the most important determinants for a teacher to be an effective teacher is to exercise restraint and desist from getting excited or angry. The effective teacher is firm against sentiments and emotions in the decision-making process.
11.Willingness to admit mistakes: – Sometimes a teacher may make a mistake unknowingly in blackboard writing. On perceiving the mistake, the teacher should thank the pupil and make the correction with a smiling face. Such a behavior of a teacher makes him/her an effective teacher.
12 Organizing as a student always: – Cent percent knowledge cannot be gained by a student during his/her student’s life in a subject. This demands organization of learning even after student life. In such an organization of learning, the teacher should always behave himself/herself as a student of the subject concerned. Such behavior increases the teacher effectiveness.